Leaky Gut In Multiple Sclerosis

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Welcome to my blog entitled ‘Leaky Gut In Multiple Sclerosis”.

Before we start, other blogs that you might be interested in, include:

In my blog entitled The Gut Microbiome In Multiple Sclerosis we discussed how there are many ways that the microbiome may contribute to Multiple Sclerosis:

  • The Gut-Brain Axis
  • Microbial metabolites
  • Modulation of the immune system
  • Maintaining a healthy gut barrier (preventing leaky gut)

Today we focus in on the last bullet point – the importance of the gut barrier, i.e leaky gut.

The Gut In Multiple Sclerosis

An example of the connection between imbalances in the gut and multiple sclerosis is the known association between multiple sclerosis and IBD.

It has been suggested this is because of common epidemiological, immunological and genetic patterns. IBD patients have an increased risk for cerebrovascular disease, peripheral neuropathy and demyelinating disease.

Also, in patients with multiple sclerosis, markers of coeliac disease are more frequent than in healthy controls (1).

The Microbiome In Multiple Sclerosis

a clear and consistent ‘multiple sclerosis microbiome phenotype’ has not been described, and a myriad of different species have been implicated. For example, studies have found a significant depletion in Clostridial species, Roseburia and increases in Streptococcus, Methanobrevibacter, Akkermansia and Coprococcus.

Multicentre studies aiming at defining a ‘core microbiome’ are underway.

Many of these bacteria are evaluated in the Healthpath Gut Test.

Leaky Gut In Multiple Sclerosis

Intestinal dysbiosis appears to mediate barrier dysfunction.

Biological barriers are essential for the maintenance of homeostasis in health and disease. Breakdown of the intestinal barrier is an essential aspect of the pathophysiology of gastrointestinal inflammatory diseases, such as inflammatory bowel disease.

Gastrointestinal disorders with intestinal barrier breakdown show evidence of CNS demyelination, and content of the intestinal microbiome entering into the circulation can impact the functions of CNS microglia.

We highlight currently available studies suggesting that there is intestinal barrier dysfunction in multiple sclerosis.

What Are The Symptom Of Leaky Gut In Multiple Sclerosis

This is actually quite hard to answer as the list is simply so long. Also, there are no symptoms specific to leaky gut. We can’t say “If you have symptom X you will have leaky gut”. Symptoms could range from gastrointestinal – bloating for example, to nutrient deficiencies or all the way through to an autoimmune diagnosis.

I think it’s important to appreciate leaky gut is always a consequence of something and thus we might not need to get bogged down in the details. We would be better served considering the gut microbiome, diet, stress levels, nutrient status, and ultimately systemic health.

How Can I Heal Leaky Gut In Multiple Sclerosis?

As a result, there is no one way to heal leaky gut. The question needs to be, whats causing leaky gut i the first place. There are some common factors which have been listed above.

Nutrients that could be considered alongside dealing with the underlying issue include:

  • Zinc
  • Glutamine
  • Probiotics
  • Vitamin D
  • Vitamin A
  • Colostrum

 

Conclusions: Leaky Gut In Multiple Sclerosis

In addition to the classical paradigm of immune–brain interaction in the context of Multiple Sclerosis, the intestine has emerged as an additional regulating organ of responses that take place both in the immunological and the nervous (central and peripheral) counterparts. In this respect, the gut commensal microbiota may serve as environmental factors that shape the intestinal milieu.

The modification of gut microbiota by either dietary (e.g., probiotic supplementation) or medicinal approaches (e.g., antibiotic administration) may serve as additional therapeutic strategies for MS prophylaxis.

More interventional approaches, such as FMT, have also been proposed.

References

  1. The intestinal barrier in multiple sclerosis: implications for pathophysiology and therapeutics (click here)
  2. The Gut-Brain Axis in Multiple Sclerosis. Is Its Dysfunction a Pathological Trigger or a Consequence of the Disease? (click here)
  3. Increased intestinal permeability in primary Sjögren’s syndrome and multiple sclerosis (click here)
  4. Undigested Food and Gut Microbiota May Cooperate in the Pathogenesis of Neuroinflammatory Diseases: A Matter of Barriers and a Proposal on the Origin of Organ Specificity (click here)
  5. Microbiome in Multiple Sclerosis: Where Are We, What We Know and Do Not Know (click here)
  6. The Gut Microbiome and Multiple Sclerosis (click here)
  7. Multiple sclerosis, the microbiome, TLR2, and the hygiene hypothesis (click here)
  8. Gut microbiome in multiple sclerosis: The players involved and the roles they play (click here)
  9. The gut microbiome in neurological disorders (click here)
  10. Gut microbiome and multiple sclerosis: New insights and perspective (click here)
  11. Alterations of the human gut microbiome in multiple sclerosis (click here)
  12. A probiotic modulates the microbiome and immunity in multiple sclerosis (click here)
  13. Multiple sclerosis and faecal microbiome transplantation: are you going to eat that? (click here)
  14. The Gut-CNS Axis in Multiple Sclerosis (click here)
  15. The intestinal barrier in multiple sclerosis: implications for pathophysiology and therapeutics (click here)
  16. Focus on the gut-brain axis: Multiple sclerosis, the intestinal barrier and the microbiome (click here)
  17. Diet, Gut Microbiota, and Vitamins D + A in Multiple Sclerosis (click here)
  18. The “Gut Feeling”: Breaking Down the Role of Gut Microbiome in Multiple Sclerosis (click here)
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