What’s Your Enterotype?

What is an enterotype? Recent research suggests that the human microbiome can be assigned to three main groups – so-called enterotypes. Intestinal bacteria develop – depending on the enterotype – stable, clearly different clusters with typical metabolic properties. The three enterotypes are thought to consist of, or be dominated by, the following bacteria: Enterotype 1

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Faecalibacterium prausnitzii: One of the most abundant bacterial species found in the gut

There is an increasing interest in Faecalibacterium prausnitzii given its potentially important role in promoting gut health. Interestingly, it may be a useful biomarker to help in ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease discrimination (both inflammatory bowel diseases). There are large population of F. prausnitzii bacteria in the normal human body, occupying 6–8%, even 20% among all kinds

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Methane and SIBO

Many of us are now very familiar with the role bacteria play in our digestive, and systemic, health, but not as many are likely familiar with the role of archaea. What Are Archaea? It has been estimated that about 33% of the world’s human population is considered to be methane producers Archaea are single-celled microorganisms

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Blastocystis Hominis

Blastocystis hominis is a parasite that inhabits the gastrointestinal tract of humans and many animals. It has a worldwide distribution, and, is often identified as the most common parasite reported in human fecal samples (5–15% of individuals in developed countries and 50–100% of individuals in developing countries). The parasite has been known since the early

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Fibromyalgia – A Functional Medicine Approach

Although chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) has been defined as a separate syndrome, up to 70% of patients with fibromyalgia are also diagnosed with CFS and 35-70% of patients with CFS have also been diagnosed with fibromyalgia. Thus studies of patients with CFS may have clinical relevance to Fibromyalgia. Every patient with chronic widespread pain requires at the

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Ankylosing Spondalyitis

What Is Ankylosing spondylitis? Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is a chronic inflammatory arthritis, thought by some to be autoimmune in origin. It would appear that the most likely causative agent in the development of Ankylosing spondylitis is an environmental factor in the genetically susceptible, HLA-B27 positive, individuals. What is HLA-B27? It has been shown that more

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Mindfulness: Part 2

In part 1 of this two part series on mindfulness (click here if you haven’t yet read it) we discussed the three components of mindfulness (intention, attention, attitude),  introduced the term “reperceiving”, and, highlighted the four direct mechanisms which lead to this shift in perspective. “Reperceiving—the capacity to dispassionately observe or witness the contents of

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Mindfulness: Part 1

What Is Mindfulness? It is “inherently a state of consciousness” which involves consciously attending to one’s moment-to-moment experience. Meditation practice is simply a “scaffolding” used to develop the state, or skill, of mindfulness. This post summarises just one paper, which must be one of my favourites in this area of health and performance (the paper

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Self-Compassion

Researchers are beginning to conceptualise self-compassion as a buffer, or moderator, of the relationships between distressing events and negative self-feelings. Self-compassion contains three components: Self-kindness versus self-judgment Common humanity versus isolation Mindfulness versus over-identification These components combine and mutually interact. Self-compassion is relevant when considering personal inadequacies, mistakes, and failures, as well as when confronting painful life

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